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My work has evaluated patterns of tobacco and cannabis use among young adults. Examples include a systematic review of tobacco and marijuana use showing strong associations between use of the two substances in young people, and highlighted factors associated with co-use. In an anonymous online national survey, we showed that cannabis use was more prevalent than previously reported among young adult smokers, that co-users of tobacco and cannabis used tobacco more heavily and had a lower likelihood of wanting to quit tobacco compared to cannabis, and that co-users showed marked differences in motivation and thoughts about abstinence toward cannabis compared to tobacco. This body of work demonstrates the high rate of co-use of tobacco and cannabis and importance of considering co-use in interventions targeting users of each substance. 


Vogel EA, Rubinstein ML, Prochaska JJ, Ramo DE. Associations between marijuana use and tobacco cessation outcomes in young adults. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2018 Nov; 94:69-73.

Gubner NR, Thrul J, Kelly OA, Ramo DE. Young adults report increased pleasure from smoking cigarettes when drinking alcohol but not when using marijuana. Addict Res Theory. 2018; 26(1):71-76.

Montgomery L, Ramo D. What Did You Expect?: The Interaction Between Cigarette and Blunt vs. Non-Blunt Marijuana Use among African American Young Adults. J Subst Use. 2017; 22(6):612-616.

McKelvey K, Thrul J, Ramo D. Impact of quitting smoking and smoking cessation treatment on substance use outcomes: An updated and narrative review. Addict Behav. 2017 Feb; 65:161-170.

Ramo DE, Delucchi KL, Liu H, Hall SM, Prochaska JJ. Young adults who smoke cigarettes and marijuana: analysis of thoughts and behaviors. Addict Behav. 2014 Jan; 39(1):77-84

Ramo DE, Delucchi KL, Hall SM, Liu H, Prochaska JJ. Marijuana and tobacco co-use in young adults: patterns and thoughts about use. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2013 Mar; 74(2):301-10.

Ramo DE, Liu H, Prochaska JJ. Tobacco and marijuana use among adolescents and young adults: a systematic review of their co-use. Clin Psychol Rev. 2012 Mar; 32(2):105-21.

Ramo DE, Prochaska JJ. Prevalence and co-use of marijuana among young adult cigarette smokers: An anonymous online national survey. Addict Sci Clin Pract. 2012 Apr 19; 7:5.