Youth addiction relapse model. My early work focused on understanding how emotional (e.g., depression, anxiety), cognitive (e.g., self-efficacy, coping skills), and behavioral factors (e.g., social/familial influences) interact to make some adolescents more vulnerable to addictive behaviors and relapse than others. Dr. Sandra Brown and I developed the Youth Addiction Relapse Model, incorporating developmental factors into the cognitive-behavioral model of relapse originally developed for adults. Three studies that encompassed my doctoral dissertation examined characteristics of addiction relapse in adolescents compared to adults. This body of work highlighted the importance of considering adolescent relapse distinct from adult relapse.


Brown SA, Ramo DE. Clinical course of youth following treatment for alcohol and drug problems. In: Liddle HA, Rowe CL, eds. Adolescent substance abuse: Research and clinical advances. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2006:79-103.

Ramo, D.E., Anderson, K.G., Tate, S.R., & Brown, S.A. (2005). Characteristics of relapse to substance use in comorbid adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 30, 1811-1823. PMC3031179

Ramo, D.E., & Brown, S.A. (2008). Classes of substance abuse relapse situations: A comparison of adolescents and adults. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22, 372-379. PMC3031179

Ramo, D.E., Myers, M.G., & Brown, S.A. (2010). Self-efficacy mediates the relationship between depression and length of abstinence after treatment in youth but not adults. Substance Use & Misuse, 45, 2301-22. PMC3031168